The Discipling Dilemma, Chapter 10

A Select Annotated Bibliography of Materials Generally Unfavorable to Modern Authoritarian Discipling Tactics

Excerpted from the book The Discipling Dilemma, 1988
By Don E. Vinzant

Adams, Jay E. "Discipling, Counseling and Church Discipline," The Journal
of Pastoral Practice
, volume VII, no. 3 (1984). This article is a revision of Adams' speech in 1983, to The National Association of Nouthetic Counselors. He deals with biblical and pragmatic considerations of church discipline. Discipline is imperative. It is one of the marks of the true church.
Adams' approach to counseling involves the use of confrontation. The Crossroads/Boston Movement has used his basic book on counseling as a textbook in their discipling activities.
In this article, Adams makes it plain that he is not in favor of one person dominating another nor trying to follow and become like some contemporary teacher--it is rather "becoming like Jesus Christ" (p. 19).
Alcorn, Wallace Arthur. "The Biblical Concept of Discipleship as Education
for Ministry." Dissertation for Doctor of Philosophy in the School of
Education, New York University, 1974. A full-length work, 341 pages, Alcorn's dissertation draws on the Old Testament, as well as the New, for insights. He offers some interesting questions about contemporary seminary education in the light of discipleship principles extracted from Scripture.
Alcorn suggests that it might prove worthwhile to study personality types with reference to some who might have a tendency toward overdependency. Further, he questions whether some might seek discipleship for personal security. He wonders if there might be a way to predict such potential problems and initiate methods to avoid such problems. (p. 323, no. 1).
This work deserves a wider circulation.

Barron, Bruce. If You Really Want To Follow Jesus. Kentmore, N.Y.: Partners
Press, 1981.
A hard-hitting study of "covenant community." Barron looks most closely at Work of Christ, a closely co-ordinated community, ecumenical, yet Roman Catholic in orientation, located in Lansing, Michigan.
These intentional communities make much of headship/submission doctrines. They appear to have been influenced by some of the earlier teachings of discipleship/shepherding as taught in New Wine and the Bob Mumford team out of Fort Lauderdale.

Barrs, Jerram. Shepherds and Sheep: A Biblical ,"View of Leading and
, Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press, 1983.
An indispensable book for those wishing to make a detailed study of this subject. Chapter Three on "Some Danger Areas," (pp. 39 - 57), is much to the point in its warnings on modern authoritarianism and also the modern arrogation of the title "apostles."

Bolt, Martin and David G. Myers. The Human Connection: How People Change
Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press, 1984.
In chapter nine, (pp. 95 - 107), Bolt suggests some half a dozen techniques to help prevent "groupthink". Groupthink occurs when dissent is suppressed in order to enhance group harmony. Hard analysis and critical judging of pros and cons is short-circuited to sustain consensus. Bolt fol-

lows a recent study by Irving L. Janis on the victims of groupthink. The techniques to prevent groupthink are these:
1. Leader encourages every member to express doubts and articulate his objections.
2. Sub-divide large group and have different persons chair the sessions then come back and hammer out the differences..
3. Bring in outside experts to present information and challenge ideas.
4. Leaders refrain from stating their position, preference or expectations.
5. At each meeting, assign a different person to be "the devil's advocate".
6. Have a "second chance" meeting before decisions are implemented.
If Crossroads/Boston employed these techniques, their critics might be silenced.

Breese, Dave. "Why Jonestown?" Moody Monthly, April, 1979, pp. 42 - 43.
Brief, but quite thought-provoking on possible parallels which could occur to Boston unless precautions are observed.

Brown, Dale W. Understanding Pietism. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans
Publishing Company, 1978.
A recent book incorporating research done for a doctoral dissertation on Pietism, Brown goes back to P. J. Spener and A. H. Francke (whom he calls "churchly Pietists"), for roots of this emphasis. Brown calls Pietism "one of the least understood movements in Judeo-Christian history." He further mentions Pietism's "tremendous influence on Christian life in the United States."
A careful look at Pietism's practices and negative tendencies produces an unexpected foreshadowing of some discipling work being done today.

Bryson, George. "Excuse for Abuse: An Examination of Heavy-handed Authority Doctrines," The Word For Today--Special Edition 2, pp. 1 - 7. Bryson states his opinion that the Scriptures do not authorize present-day apostles. He further reminds his readers that 1 Peter 5:3 teaches elders not to be lords, but rather to be examples to the flock. He says, "Far from undermining spiritual authority, this definition. . . is a much more effective and powerful force for good than the "Me boss, you brother" mentality so prevalent in many circles.

Buess, Bob. Discipleship: Pro and Con. Van, Texas: Sweeter Than Honey, 1975.
Buess, an East Texas charismatic pastor, is the first person I have found who sounds the alarm about the dangers in "neo-discipleship" or dictatorial submission teachings.
Calenberg, Richard D. "The New Testament Doctrine of Discipleship."
Dissertation for Doctor of Theology, Grace Theological Seminary,
1981. Looking at the New Testament evidence on the subject, Calenberg provides a 278 page dissertation which attempts to deal with exegetical fairness. Calenberg notices, at the beginning of his study, that, when the dissertation was written, 1981, "discipleship" was a "shibboleth" which all evangelicals were to utter repeatedly, but which few could define biblically.
Calenberg concludes that the term "disciple" is absent from the New Testament Epistles because of what the term would have connoted in the Greek world and because the relationship between the believer and his Lord was better communicated with terms during the Church Age. His conclusion, further, is that upon saving faith one becomes a disciple in a general sense and subsequently one makes the deeper commitment to the stringent requirements for true discipleship.

Coleman, Steve. "A Christian Look at the Shepherding Movement," Personal
Freedom Outreach
, vol. 3, no. 2. April/June, 1983.
Brief, but powerful, as Coleman finds the "covering" doctrine which tells the modern disciple to obey implicitly every teaching of his discipler to be woefully deficient theologically. The covering doctrine argues that if one's discipler gave him an erroneous command to obey--the disciple is covered if he obeys it. His implicit obedience makes his covering. The discipler is held responsible for giving a wrong command. Coleman shows how this undercuts, theologically, Christ and His sacrifice as the only thing that can atone for sin.

Davison, Roy. Doctrinal Errors of the Hierarchical Discipleship Movement.
Belgium: privately printed booklet, 1985.
A concise booklet of 43 pages in which this veteran missionary of 20 years in Europe traces much of modern discipleship back to Robert Coleman's The Master Plan of Evangelism and to Juan Carlos Ortiz' Call to Discipleship. Davison concludes that some are in danger of being "deceived and led astray." They are, ". . . those for whom numerical 'success' is more important than truth, those who are intrigued by human theories and doctrines, those who prefer being told what to do rather than accepting their own responsibility, and those who like to exercise authority over others." (p. 40).

Deffenbaugh, Don. The Discipling Movement Among Churches of Christ.
private tract. Neosho, Missouri, 1986.
A recent study which traces much of the influence toward modern discipleship to Robert Coleman's The Master Plan of Evangelism. (see chapter eight in this book on "Roots.") Deffenbaugh states that in 1980, some 200 congregations were troubled by this movement of modern discipleship. He mentions that congregations in more than 22 states have suffered division because of it. (p. 8).
In his addendum, he observes that "The discipling movement has been rather successful among the young adults in the Lord's church, especially those. . . of college age who are insecure and unsettled and are looking for direction in their lives. This system provides for them that acceptance and direction at a very crucial time. That is why the discipling movement has seemed to work so well in the college and university community." (p. 27).

Dixon, Danny Andre. Discipling Ministries: An Inside Look, Nashville, Tenn.:
Gospel Advocate Company, 1987. 73 pp.
A recent book by one who formerly worked within the ranks of the modem discipling movement. In nine chapters and an appendix, Dixon examines some aspects of this movement and what he found to be deficient and legalistic.

Edwards, Gene. Letters to a Devastated Christian. Goleta, Calif.: Christian
Books, 1983.
A brief book of only 39 pages. Edwards, experienced in counseling those wounded by authoritarianism, gives advice within the literary framework of letters to a young man, "Ken." One of Edwards' tests for determining if one is in an authoritarian movement is to ask how many ex-elders there are. Another is to ask if the one leading the movement has to control everyone "within his environment."
Another suggestion is to give out a boxful of George Orwell's book, Animal Farm. Give them out to all one's friends within the movement--to the leaders, elders, etc. If those in the movement can read that book and survive, Edwards says, ".... . then, I don't think you are in an authoritarian movement."

In a more serious vein, Edwards (p. 10) gives eight impressions he has developed as to the damage done by authoritarianism in shepherding/discipleship.

Enroth, Ronald M. "Churches on the Fringe," Eternity, October, 1986, pp. 17ff.
This article is to be followed by a book in 1988, to be published by InterVarsity Press. These churches, ". . . promote isolationist attitudes, exhibit a sense of spiritual superiority, and scrutinize members who want to leave their groups. Some former members feel victimized, confused and bitter."
Enroth concludes that mainstream churches must reach out to the ones on the fringe who feel hurt and confusion and help them find healing.
Anyone dealing in any way with authoritarianism would want to read Enroth's upcoming book.

Enroth, Ronald M. "The Powerful Abusers: When Follow-the-Leader Becomes A
Dangerous Game," Eternity October, 1979, pp. 22ff.
Connected to Enroth's article is a one-page box treatment of Covenant Presbyterian Church of Philadelphia. It was examined and several former members interviewed by the local presbytery. This presbytery found seven similarities of Covenant Presbyterian with cultic groups. Some sound strangely similar to the authoritarian movement within Crossroads/Boston. "(1) The presence of a strong leader; (2) a faithful inner group which implicitly accepts all that the leader sets forth; (3) the gathering of weaker persons between the ages of 15 and 30 and marshalling them into a monolithic fixation; (4) the destruction of liberty of conscience; (5) the accepting of biblical truths, as most cults do, and then adding to and taking from them; (6) alienating young people from their parents, since they present a competing authority figure; (7) and finally, a developing and ever sharpened expertise in techniques of brainwashing." (p. 24).

Fialka, John J. "Fervent Faction--Maranatha Christians, Backing Rightist
Ideas, Draw Fire Over Tactics," Wall Street Journal, August 16, 1985. Maranatha Ministries, based in Gainesville, Florida, and led by Bob Weiner, Jr., received careful scrutiny by Fialka. Critics find Maranatha using a form of mind control. Students are isolated from their parents and are guided as to their decisions by those leading the Maranatha.
One young woman who had entered the Maranatha movement at age 23, Kathy Myatt, says that when she questioned some church rulings, she was said to have "a spirit of independent thinking and rebellion." In a telephone interview with a Maranatha spokesperson, I (DV) was told that Maranatha was just helping students who weren't reared properly and "didn't know how to brush their teeth." This spokesperson quickly and forcefully rejected however, any implication that Maranatha was like Crossroads (at one time also headquartered in Gainesville, Florida). He said of the troubles we are experiencing in Crossroads/Boston, "What you are experiencing in the Church of Christ is what the charismatics vomited up."

Green, Michael. First Things Last: Whatever Happened to Evangelism?
Nashville, Tenn.: Discipleship Resources, 1979.
His warnings merit attention. Green is perhaps the foremost scholar on evangelism in the first century'. Green is concerned that the aftercare for new Christians not become oppressive.

Griffiths, Michael. The Example of Jesus. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity
Press, 1985.
Griffiths, principal of London Bible College, reminds his readers that, "It

is striking that the apostles never refer to their own converts as being their own disciples (the word is never used, even once in any of the Epistles), but win their converts to their departed Master, baptising them in His name, and into a new community in Christ, with Christ as their head."

Gustaitis, Rasa. "Hard-Sell Religion," Nutshell, Fall, 1983. pp. 72ff.
An up-close critical examination of Boston-style discipleship as Gustaitis found it to be in 1983. This article also deals with the Maranatha Ministries, referred to in the article by Fialka.
Gustaitis turns in a rather grim report.

Hach, Robert (editor). "The Authority Structure of the Church," and
"Spiritual Leadership: Leading or Lording?" Reflections, Volume 1,
Number 5, October, 1987, pp. 14.
Anyone interested in thoughtful articles by those who know what they are talking about should request Reflections. Hach, and others who work with him in Miami, come to this writing assignment from a vantage point of knowledgeability about Crossroads/Boston.

Hadaway, C. Kirk, Stuart A. Wright, and Francis M. DuBose. Home Cell
Groups and House Churches
. Nashville, Tenn.: Broadman Press, 1987.
This recent Southern Baptist work gives a dispassionate and objective look at the entire small-group emphasis. As they deal with house churches, they find it necessary to report on the shepherding movement as it was led in earlier years by Mumford, Simpson, Prince, etc., out of Fort Lauderdale, Florida.

Hadfield, Ron. "Campus Advance Defectors Speak of Experiences," The
, (student newspaper at Abilene Christian University),
Volume 66, Number 26, April 13, 1979.
An indispensable source for those wanting to know what effect the Crossroads Movement was having on young people in the late '70s. This material can be ordered from Abilene Christian University.

Harper, Michael. Let My People Grow: Ministry and Leadership in the Church.
Plainfield, New Jersey: Logos International, 1977.
Harper, former associate with John Stott, went into the charismatic movement and became the director of Fountain Trust. A respected leader he sounds an alert to a kind of leadership in house churches which could become oppressive. His warnings are quite applicable to those in authoritarian movements in churches of Christ.

Hart, Larry. "Problems of Authority in Pentecostalism," 'Review and Ex positor: vol. 75, no. 2 (Spring, 1975). pp. 249ff.
Writing from a Southern Baptist standpoint, Hart, nevertheless, deals with the problem of radical submission in the discipleship "family" to which one belonged. The movement, Hart says, in some circles, degenerated into what he calls "extreme authoritarianism and exclusivism."
One wonders how many warnings our own discipleship advocates must hear before they take heed to where their own excesses can lead.

Hendren, Bob. Which Way The Church? Nashville, Tenn.: 20th Century Christian, 1985.
This has been the premier book on Crossroads/Boston which this writer (DV) has found. Everyone interested in the subject should purchase the book and read it at least twice.

Hitt, Russell T. "The Soul-Watchers," Eternity. April, 1976, pp. 13ff.
A most useful article for the one beginning to explore the field of modern discipleship teaching.

Huang, Thomas T. "Boston Church Recruits Pursue Interphase Frosh," The
(M.I.T.), September 1, 1987, pp. 1,11.
On the campus of M.I.T., in Boston, the accusation was brought that this past summer some Boston recruiters used too much pressure in trying to influence foreign students.
A middle way of speaking the truth in love must be found--a way that would avoid indifference on the one hand and would avoid pressure and exploitation of lonely young people on the other hand.

Jennings, Alvin. "Where Do I Stand In Relation To the Crossroad Churches?" Fort Worth, Texas: Star Bible Publications, dated September 30, 1987. 4 pps.
Earlier Jennings appeared to be an admirer and friend to the Crossroads'/Boston Movement. In this tract, Jennings states that he has several concerns, one of the principal ones being in the area of organization-both in local churches and in Boston's new "pillar" approach.
Jennings refers to a recent speech by Dr. Jerry Jones. Since Jones voiced some of the same concerns as Jennings, there is given a brief synopsis of Jones' speech. It covered four points: (1) Proper Use of Scripture; (2) Discipling Models; (3) Re-baptism and (4) Local Leadership.

Kachur, Robert M. "Special Report: Campus Cultic Groups," U, (April/May) 1987, pp. 2ff.
Kachur suggests that the typical person joining a cult or sect is between 17 and 25 and, for the first time living away from home. They come from middle-class or upper middle-class homes. They have sometimes lost some one close to them, . . . have perhaps just broken up with a sweetheart, feel that their lives lack a sense of "drama, power and vitality."
Those involved in campus evangelism need to avoid abuse, exploitation and domineering of young people. In addition to the Christian ethical considerations, those involved in campus evangelism must remember that these young people will inevitably mature and grow older and wiser. Then, when they look back on their experience, the question will be faced--do they feel they were loved or used?

Lattin, Don. "The Shepherding Movement," San Francisco Examiner: February 9, 1984, Section A, pp. 1ff.
An excellent article by a reporter for a secular daily newspaper on what is involved in being a part of the shepherding movement. "Those in the movement concede they regularly seek their shepherd's counsel before making major personal decisions. They willingly quit their jobs, sell their homes and move when church leaders tell them to relocate."
Those who have never been a part of these discipleship/shepherding movements may have difficulty believing the degree of dependence which is fostered within these groups, but Lattin's article states it plainly.

Ligon, Bill and Robert Paul Lamb. Discipleship: The Jesus View. Plainfield,: N.J.: Logos International, 1979.
Ligon has done a real service in supplying one of the few historical treatments of a discipleship emphasis as it has been manifested throughout the centuries since the Church was established.

Looney, John Thomas, "Nondenominational Charismatic Churches: Visions
of a New Testament Community," Thesis for Master of Divinity at Union Theological Seminary (New York), December, 1981.
Looney, who had been a part of the shepherding movement as seen in the Fort Lauderdale shepherds, wrote a master's thesis which examined the bases of this approach. His "insider" status adds interest to his treatment.

Looney left this movement and is now a pastor in the Christian and Missionary Alliance Church in New York.

Luter, A. Boyd, "A New Testament Theology of Discipling," Dissertation for
Doctor of Theology, Dallas Theological Seminary, May 1985.
This massive dissertation of 245 pages brings together several concerns which Luter has treated earlier in periodical articles. Luter deals with the uniqueness of Christ's person and position as a discipler. (p. 37ff). This being the case, where does one find the warrant to presume to say that today Christians are to take the role of discipler and apply all the principles Christ used in His unique place to themselves? "Christ's example as a discipIer cannot be imItated to the extent the popular model insists on." (p. 38).
He finds a major difference between what Christ was doing in the Gospels to make apostles and what leaders are to do today is that today the Church exists. It was not present during Christ's earthly ministry. It today has a major role in nurturing and developing young Christians.

Luter, A. Boyd, Jr. "A Theological Evaluation of "Christ Model" Disciple Making, The Journal of Pastoral Practice, volume 5, number 4, 1982. pp. 11-21.
Luter has done a real service to the evangelical world in challenging the modern discipleship advocates to come up with some justification for their presumptuously using the "Christ Model" as their model for disciple-making. In this article and in his dissertation later, Luter shows the nonapplicability of much of Christ's work in training the Twelve to our contemporary situation. The would-be discipler today has neither the position nor the place Christ held. He cannot point to his own life as sinless as Christ's followers could point to the perfection of their model. Today's discipIer lacks the time, authority, and, doubtless, the humilIty, to arrogate the model Christ exemplified.
It is absolutely unfair as Luter points out, to pick, choose and select, without solid hermeneutical footing, among the various things Christ did and claim that you are replicating today what He did then in preparing His own apostles.

Lynch, Selma, "Forum: Letter to the Editor" Christian Chronicle. volume 43, no. 9, September, 1986, p. 23.
This young lady is reacting to an editorial in the April, 1986, Chronicle. She recounts her own experience in the Crossroads movement. She tells about a woman who came to the church, studied and wanted to be baptized. The woman counselor said she was not ready. The woman went to the preacher of the congregation. He was not a part of Crossroads. He talked to her, then baptized her. The Crossroads people were furious. They shunned her, heavily criticized her, basically excluding her from their circle of friends. The new convert left the church, confused and heart-broken. Ms. Lynch decided to leave the Crossroads approach and move to a mainline Church of Christ where she found warm, caring Christians who loved her. Before she left Crossroads, she tells of her cousin coming by to find out why she was leaving. Her cousin said, "If it bothers you to have people telling you what to do, don't worry. When you've been in the movement longer, then you can tell others what to do."
Lynch says, "Apparently it's run like a pyramid scam. As you're in the movement over time, you get moved into positions of greater authority and control . . . "

MacDonald, Gordon. "Disciple Abuse," Discipleship Journal, A Navigators

publication, volume 5, no. 6 Issue Thirty (November 1, 1985), pp. 24 - 28.
A very thoughtful article by one who had comprehensive knowledge of the entire evangelical world. It bears careful reading and reflection. I would rank this as among the four or five most important things to read on this problem.
It is to the credit of the Navigators who use the discipleship vocabulary extensively that in their own journal they would publish articles such as MacDonald's.

McDonnell, Kilian. (editor). Presence, Power, Praise: Documents on the
Charismatic Renewal, Volume 2,
ContinentaL National, and Regional
Documents, Numbers 38-80, 1975-1979. Collegeville, Minnesota: The
Liturgical Press, 1980. (pp. 116-147).
This three volume collection of documents having to do with the charismatic movement is of great historical value to those researching this specialized field. The section cited above is that which deals with the "first holy war" of the charismatics which had to do with shepherding/discipleship and its ancillary doctrines.

MacGavran, Donald. "How About That New Verb to Disciple?" Growth
, Volume XV, No. 5 (May, 1979), pp. 1ff.
The dean of the Church Growth Movement defines and explains the different ways people are using the verb "to disciple" which MacGavran coined in his earlier writings on church growth.

Mahoney, Ralph. "The Use and Abuse of Authority," World Map Digest, 1983/1984.
Mahoney writes as one within the charismatic movement in his strictures on authority. He has five articles dealing with the issue of authority in the setting of the problems which the charismatic movement has undergone.
In his fifth and last article, Mahoney brings forward nine examples of cases recorded within the Bible in which someone was doing the Lord's will by disobeying what someone with authority over them had told them they must do.

Miller, Elliot. "The Christian and Authority," Parts One and Two, Forward,
Spring, 1985 and Summer, 1985.
In this two-part introductory study, Miller lays out plainly and with surprising fullness the whole question of the church and authority. He sees the issue in historical perspective. After dealing with authoritarianism in the historic church, Miller moves to authoritarianism in the contemporary church. He says that the esteemed leader, minister or shepherd often ". . . .will not hesitate to pronounce God's will for the minutiae of their followers' personal lives (this is one of the areas in which the abuse and devastation surpass those in the traditionalist churches). Miller mentions that in different degrees this can be found in a whole gamut of evangelical Protestant groups. The first group he refers to is "the 'Shepherding and Discipleship' movement (which teaches the doctrine that every believer needs a fellow-believer as a 'covering')." (p. 13 in Part One).

Noll, M.A., "Pietism," Evangelical Dictionary of Theology, (edited by W.A. Elwell) Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Book House, pp. 855ff.
Noll's article is balanced and suggests both the positive and negative tendencies to be found resulting from the application of Pietistic influences. With respect to the negative results, Noll says, "Some of the fears of its earliest opponents have been partially justified. At its worst the pietistic

tendency can lead to inordinate subjectivism and emotionalism; it can discourage careful scholarship; it can fragment the church through enthusiastic separatism; it can establish new codes of almost legalistic morality; and it can underrate the value of Christian tradition." (p. 858). That sounds like a criticism of the worst scenario of the modern authoritarian discipleship movement among Crossroads/Boston.

O'Malley, J. S., "Discipleship Movement," Evangelical Dictionary of
, (edited by Walter A. Elwell), Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Book House, 1984., pp. 319-320.
An article which is indispensable to understand shepherding/discipleship as it grew out of the charismatic movement. O'Malley points out that, "Some oppose the amount of control exercised by shepherds over such matters as the choice of a mate and the decision to have children." (p. 320)

Smith, Chuck. "Shepherding or Dictatorship? Christian Possession," The
Answer for Today
, 6, 1979, pp. 1-5.
A brief, but useful, article by one who was a prime early leader in the "Jesus People" movement of the 1960s. Smith talks about the problem, "II you want to buy or sell your house, it's imperative that you first consult your elder. . . . The same is true if you want to buy or sell a car or TV, or if you want to change your job. If you want to go on a trip, these shepherds will tell you where you can go, how long you can stay, and when to be back. . . . If you desire to move to another locality, they'll tell you whether or not you may have their blessings and permission. . . . The elders have set up an apostleship. . . . On many occasions these shepherds have told a person exactly whom he or she was to marry, how much and when to give, what books to read, and which tapes to listen to. . . . It is absolutely imperative to obey your elder--even if he is wrong. . . . What you do will be right, because you've done it in obedience to your elder." (p. 2).
It sounds to critics of Crossroads/Boston as if they are on the verge of teaching all of the above, if indeed they are not already in the middle of teaching all of the above.

Starkes, M. Thomas. Confronting Cults: Old and New. Chattanooga, Tenn.:
AMG, 1984.
Starkes discusses many cults and cult-like groups. On the issue of authoritarianism, he has an entire chapter. He calls chapter 12, "Neo-Authoritarianism: A Psycho-Theological Struggle." Starkes says, "In the 1980's, the new legalists promote submission of the human spirit in the name of Christian discipleship. The issue is not dead. Galatians still stands as a flagship surrounded by an enemy armada seeking to rob believers of freedom in Christ Jesus." (p. 127).

Stoeffler, F . Ernest, "Pietism," The Encyclopedia of Religion, New York:
MacMillan, 1987, (edited by Mircea Eliade). Volume 11, pp. 324-326.
Stoeffler's article differentiates between various early branches of Pietism. He mentions that Pietism must now be viewed as one of the major religious traditions which shaped Protestantism in America. He states in summary fashion a number of positive contributions of Pietism.

Terris, Daniel. "Come, All Ye Faithful," Globe Magazine, 1986.
Rather critical of the Boston Church of Christ, Terris' article deserves to be read by both friends and foes. Terris' interviews are especially valuable and cover a wide range of feeling toward what the Crossroads/Boston movement is doing.

"The Discipleship and Submission Movement, Springfield, MO.: Gospel Publishing House, 1976. (A position paper adopted August 17, 1976, published as a tract.)
The old-line Pentecostal denominations such as The Assemblies of God and Pentecostal Holiness Church did not fall victim, by and large, to the shepherding/discipleship fad that rocked the charismatic movement in the mid-1970s.
The Assemblies of God set up a committee to study this issue and then the General Presbytery adopted their position paper and published it as a tract which can be ordered from the denominational headquarters. It takes a firm stand against the discipleship and submission movement.

Thompson, James. The Mark of A Christian. Broken Arrow, Okla.: Christian Communications, 1983.
In his discussions on Paul's methods and those of his opponents in 2 Corinthians 10-13, Thompson offers some judicious thoughts for leadership which are relevant to the issue at hand.

Thurman, Joyce. New Wineskins: A Study of the House Church. Frankfurt: Verlag Peter Lang, 1982.
A ground-breaking study of a phenomenon in Great Britain--the house church--which was not well-known here in the United States. Thurman, through reading and interviews, paints an intriguing portrait of these churches--charismatic--which use the term "Restoration Movement" to describe themselves. One of the darker aspects into which the Harvestime branch of these house churches have fallen is the use of authoritarian tactics in dealing with their members. The Harvestime leaders came in contact with the shepherding movement emanating from Fort Lauderdale, Florida.

Waterman, David L. "The Care and Feeding of Growing Christians," Eternity, 1979, pp. 17-22.
A valuable article giving some of the background of when "follow-up" began to be called "discipling." Waterman sees a strong influence in aftercare of new converts from Dawson Trotman, the founder of the Navigators.

Wilson, Carl. With Christ in the School of Disciple Building. Grand Rapids,
Michigan: Zondervan, 1976.
An important book which deserves to be better known. Wilson sounds an alarm against the hierarchy which he realized could doom the modern discipleship emphasis.

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